SARS-CoV-2-specific nasal IgA wanes 9 months after hospitalisation with COVID-19 and is not induced by subsequent vaccination


This study demonstrates durable yet compartmentalised nasal IgA and plasma antibody responses to SARSCoV-2 after infection and subsequent vaccination. We show enhancement of nasal and plasma IgG responses to ancestral SARS-CoV-2, Delta, and Omicron variants after vaccination. However, nasal IgA responses, especially those to Omicron, are more short-lived and are not substantially affected by vaccination. Our results explain the lack of long-term sterilising immunity after previous infection and/or vaccination and highlight the need for mucosal vaccines that target nasal IgA responses. By enhancing nasal antibody responses, mucosal vaccines might prevent infection and transmission more effectively, enabling greater control of the pandemic and limiting the emergence of variants.