Influenza vaccination in patients affected by diabetes

Type 2 diabetes, obesity-related metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance are the most common metabolic disorders associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In addition, patients with Type 2 diabetes have an increased risk for a more severe course of influenza virus infection, a common pandemic. There is increasing evidence that influenza vaccination in patients with diabetes can safely and effectively reduce all-cause mortality and cardiovascular death. The effects of vaccination appear to be more effective when using higher-dose and quadrivalent vaccines, although subgroup-specific separate analyses in patients with diabetes are lacking. Clinical recommendations address influenza vaccination in all adults with diabetes. From our point of view, it should be an integral part of treatment strategies in patients with diabetes.